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    More Science, Can You Believe It?

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    chris c
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Thu Sep 06 2018, 23:36

    Oh yes that's an excellent one, here

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1002/jcla.22650

    There's just so much of it now

    Relationship between very low low-density
    lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations not
    due to statin therapy and risk of type 2
    diabetes: A US-based cross-sectional
    observational study using electronic health
    records

    https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002642

    "Very low LDL-C concentrations occurring in the absence of statin treatment were significantly associated with T2DM risk in a large EHR population; this increased risk was present in both sexes and all BMI categories, and in individuals of European ancestry but not of African ancestry. Longitudinal cohort studies to assess the relationship between very low LDL-C levels not associated with lipid-lowering therapy and risk of developing T2DM will be important."

    oops!

    Remission of pre-diabetes to normal
    glucose tolerance in obese adults with
    high protein versus high carbohydrate
    diet: randomized control trial

    https://drc.bmj.com/content/4/1/e000258

    Still a bit afraid of the fat, but even cutting carbs to 40% seems to help

    Comparison of endothelial progenitor cell
    function in type 2 diabetes with good and poor
    glycemic control

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2858721/

    "Conclusion

    There was EPC dysfunction in type 2 diabetes which might be improved by strict glycemic control. However, the circulating EPC number and proliferative function in patients with good glycemic control did not reach the level in healthy controls."

    I suspect that may be due to the way control was achieved. Low carb good, jacking up insulin bad. Just a thought. Ties in with much of Malcolm Kendrick's work.

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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Sun Sep 09 2018, 22:49

    This study was done eight years ago and don't think there have been any other studies that contradict it

    Markers of cardiovascular risk are not changed by increased whole-grain intake: the WHOLEheart study, a randomised, controlled dietary intervention

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501710/

    More recently and one which dietitians must hate 

    Whole grain cereals for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28836672


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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Mon Sep 10 2018, 23:16

    That first one contained Susan Jebb. oops!

    Yes the Cochrane one didn't go down so well.

    Where are the studies of whole grains vs. NO grains?

    https://isupportgary.com/articles/seventh-day-adventist-plant-based-nutrition

    https://isupportgary.com/articles/cereal-catalyst-lifestyle-medicine-vegan

    Role Of Sugars in Human Neutrophilic Phagocytosis - from 1973

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1093/ajcn/26.11.1180

    Risk Factors, Mortality, and Cardiovascular
    Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1056/NEJMoa1800256

    Association between insulin resistance
    and the development of cardiovascular disease

    https://cardiab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12933-018-0762-4

    pdf available

    The Food Supply Of The Future (from 1909)

    https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1634378.pdf

    Output and technical change in twentieth-century
    British agriculture

    http://www.bahs.org.uk/AGHR/ARTICLES/48n1a4.pdf

    long but interesting

    and another excellent takedown of Harvard/Lancet rubbish

    https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/diagnosis-diet/201809/latest-low-carb-study-all-politics-no-science
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Tue Sep 11 2018, 22:21

    ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TRIGLYCERIDE/HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL RATIO AND MICRO- AND MACROANGIOPATHIES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Conclusion: A high TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with albuminuria, CAD, CVA, and peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with DM, which translated into an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

    http://journals.aace.com/doi/abs/10.4158/EP-2017-0254?code=aace-site&journalCode=endp

    Another earlier study stressing the importance TG/HDL ratio

    The Association between Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and All-Cause Mortality in Acute Coronary Syndrome after Coronary Revascularization

    https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123521

    Of course we know how to lower trigs and raise HDL don't we  Wink

    Meanwhile found on twitter via Ivor, new from Uffe Ravnskov

    LDL-C Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease: a comprehensive review of current literature

    Expert commentary

    Our search for falsifications of the cholesterol hypothesis confirms that it is unable to satisfy any of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality, and that the conclusions of the authors of the three reviews are based on misleading statistics, exclusion of unsuccessful trials and by ignoring numerous contradictory observations.

    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17512433.2018.1519391


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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Fri Sep 14 2018, 23:29

    Damn, the first paper isn't on Sci-Hub (yet) but the Ravnskov one is

    https://doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2018.1519391

    It's getting to the state where the only people who don't know this stuff have their fingers in their ears.

    Meanwhile Jennifer Elliott is back blogging again

    http://blog.babyboomersandbellies.com

    and here's one of her papers

    Flaws, Fallacies and Facts: Reviewing the
    Early History of the Lipid and Diet/Heart
    Hypotheses

    http://file.scirp.org/Html/7-2701370_50455.htm

    no wonder they had to deregister her
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Sun Sep 16 2018, 22:32

    Just from the abstract of the Uffe Ravnskov paper it's plain to see were he's coming from, wonder if Professor Statin has read it yet  Question


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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Sun Sep 16 2018, 22:49

    Another paper from Nicola Guess, she seems to be one of the saner ones who's prepared to consider diets other than low fat 

    Dietary Interventions for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Groups: Current State of Evidence and Future Research Needs

    Abstract: A series of large-scale randomised controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of lifestyle change in preventing type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance. Participants in these trials consumed a low-fat diet, lost a moderate amount of weight and/or increased their physical activity. Weight loss appears to be the primary driver of type 2 diabetes risk reduction, with individual dietary components playing a minor role. The effect of weight loss via other dietary approaches, such as low-carbohydrate diets, a Mediterranean dietary pattern, intermittent fasting or very-low-energy diets, on the incidence of type 2 diabetes has not been tested. These diets—as described here—could be equally, if not more effective in preventing type 2 diabetes than the tested low-fat diet, and if so, would increase choice for patients. There is also a need to understand the effect of foods and diets on beta-cell function, as the available evidence suggests moderate weight loss, as achieved in the diabetes prevention trials, improves insulin sensitivity but not beta-cell function. Finally, prediabetes is an umbrella term for different prediabetic states, each with distinct underlying pathophysiology. The limited data available question whether moderate weight loss is effective at preventing type 2 diabetes in each of the prediabetes subtypes.

    http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/9/1245/htm

    Obviously a moderate weight loss would not have prevented my diabetes  Sad


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    Proving the LowCarb sceptics wrong for over ten years

    Not all cherubs are Angels  Wink nor all diabetics Bonkers  Rolling Eyes
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Tue Sep 18 2018, 23:14

    Nor mine, nor that of about 20% of other "Type 2"s.

    I can't decide about her, she's less clueless than the other reprobates but still has a long way to go. A while back she was stating that there was "no evidence" other than made up stuff on blogs about the harms from Omega 6 oils, and Tucker Goodrich kindly pointed her to not just a paper but an entire ISSUE of a journal on the subject. It's hard to do evidence-based medicine when you aren't told about half the evidence.

    Still she's moving in the right direction. I think the next step will be

    "Well if you really can't make a healthy low fat/Mediterranean?vegan diet work perhaps it wouldn't do any harm to try a low carb diet, but only for six months"

    To us it's woeful but to them it's a major step.
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Thu Sep 27 2018, 23:06

    Not read the full  paper yet but it's promising research into cancer

    Mitochondrial Correction: A New Therapeutic Paradigm for Cancer and Degenerative Diseases

    https://www.isom.ca/article/mitochondrial-correction-new-therapeutic-paradigm-cancer-degenerative-diseases/

    High fat vindicated in this new study

    Mechanisms Preserving Insulin Action during High Dietary Fat Intake

    Highlights

    • Insulin sensitivity is maintained in both men and mice with high PUFA or SFA intake
    • Hepatic glucose production and de novo lipogenesis are decreased with high fat intake
    • High fat intake decreases fasting insulin and triacylglycerol levels
    • High fat intake changes the plasma proteome in an immune-supporting direction


    https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(18)30565-5


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    Proving the LowCarb sceptics wrong for over ten years

    Not all cherubs are Angels  Wink nor all diabetics Bonkers  Rolling Eyes
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Fri Sep 28 2018, 23:18

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.08.022

    meanwhile

    Extra-intestinal manifestations of non-celiac gluten
    sensitivity: an expanding paradigm

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897856/

    ties in nicely with the recent one about gluten in the diet of mothers and subsequent Type 1 diabetes in their children

    Gives the lie to this somewhat

    https://www.nutritioncoalition.us/news/2018/9/10/big-pasta-cooks-up-self-interested-nutrition-science

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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Sun Sep 30 2018, 22:04

    Omega-6 vegetable oils as a driver of
    coronary heart disease: the oxidized
    linoleic acid hypothesis

    https://openheart.bmj.com/content/openhrt/5/2/e000898.full.pdf

    not so heart healthy after all huh?

    Mechanisms Preserving Insulin Action during High
    Dietary Fat Intake

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.08.022

    a technical look at the changes that occur without the customary paranoia

    Effect of Chronic Hyperglycemia on Glucose Metabolism in Subjects with Normal Glucose
    Tolerance

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.2337/db18-0439

    likewise

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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Sun Sep 30 2018, 22:17

    Dietitians won't like this

    Effects of Various Commercial Whole-Grain Breads on Postprandial Blood Glucose Response and Glycemic Index in Healthy Subjects 

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is a serious risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As diet is a cornerstone of both T2DM prevention and therapy, we investigated the effects of various commercially available breads on postprandial glucose response and glycemic index. Furthermore, the impact of oilseed- and protein-enriched breads was evaluated, as well as the influence of different wheat flour coarseness settings. Three experiments were conducted to study the effects of various breads on the postprandial glucose levels of randomly selected subjects (42 in total). First, putative differences of seven types of commercially available whole-grain breads were studied. Second, the influence of oilseed- and protein-enriched breads was investigated and third, the influence of different wheat flour coarseness settings was characterized. The total area under curve (AUC), postprandial glucose response, peak glucose level and glycemic index were calculated for each condition. Consumption of various types of whole-grain breads resulted in large variations in postprandial glucose response and significant differences in calculated glycemic indices. Furthermore, postprandial glucose levels and glycemic indices appeared significantly lower for protein-rich bread than compared to oil-seed-rich bread. Interestingly, no significant differences in postprandial glucose levels or glycemic indices were detected for fine, medium or coarse wheat flour breads. Based on the correlation study, breads with low total carbohydrates and high amounts of protein are advisable for the prevention of high glucose loads and should be considered by people suffering from T2DM. Trial registration: O2413 (Ethics Commissions of Upper Austria) 

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324746855_Effects_of_Various_Commercial_Whole-Grain_Breads_on_Postprandial_Blood_Glucose_Response_and_Glycemic_Index_in_Healthy_Subjects

    PDF available


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    Proving the LowCarb sceptics wrong for over ten years

    Not all cherubs are Angels  Wink nor all diabetics Bonkers  Rolling Eyes
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    HbA1c Variability Is a Strong Predictor of Mortality in T2DM

    Post by graham64 on Tue Oct 02 2018, 22:13

    Not sure if I've posted this before or not  Embarassed

    HbA1c variability is a powerful, independent measure, regardless of how it is measured

    http://www.physiciansbriefing.com/Article.asp?AID=737869

    My A1c has remained stable over the past ten years just another benefit of low carb  Cool


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    I'm a skinny T2 diagnosed 4/4/2008, a high calorie LCHF diet and one metformin a day A1c 6.2 and no complications.

    Proving the LowCarb sceptics wrong for over ten years

    Not all cherubs are Angels  Wink nor all diabetics Bonkers  Rolling Eyes
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Tue Oct 02 2018, 22:50

    But . . . but . . . but . . . GRAINZ!!!

    Backs up the recent research by Michael Snyder using a CGM. Cornflakes for breakfast were driving diabetic numbers in many nondiabetics. Did I post that one up the thread or have I to find it again?

    I think it was this one

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057684/

    The second one is here

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1111/dom.13306

    My A1c has varied a bit but stayed below 6% for 14 years now. That's the way to do it! Well nearly, some (including Type 1s) get below 5%
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Thu Oct 04 2018, 22:21

    My favourite (classic) papers on the subject

    EPIC Norfolk

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC26599/pdf/15.pdf

    Elley et al

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02581.x

    Brewer et al

    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/31/6/1144.full.pdf

    all looking at the correlation of A1c and cardiovascular risk or premature death

    There's one I can't recall just now (actually I think more than one) that correlates A1c with microvascular complications and postprandial glucose spikes with macrovascular complications.

    Then there's this

    Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized
    trial of a moderate-carbohydrate versus
    very low-carbohydrate diet in overweight
    adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus or
    prediabetes

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41387-017-0006-9.pdf

    and from ten years ago

    The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a
    low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes
    mellitus

    https://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1743-7075-5-36

    Yet dieticians still bleat that there is no evidence. Well of course there isn't when you don't look at it.
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Wed Oct 10 2018, 22:43

    Hyperinsulinemia: a Cause of Obesity?

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5487935/pdf/13679_2017_Article_261.pdf

    Barbara Corkey is a credible researcher. So is Jim Johnson, who now works for Novo Nordisk in Oxford, and Gareth Lim who now has his own lab

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312080213_A_causal_role_for_hyperinsulinemia_in_obesity

    Oh and another post from Joy Kiddie

    http://www.lchf-rd.com/2018/09/28/a-trial-of-the-evidence/

    looks like Australia is moving fast in the right direction.
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Thu Oct 11 2018, 23:06

    Effects of intensive interventions compared to standard care in people with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria on risk factors control and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    Conclusions
    Apart from blood pressure outcomes, there was no evidence that intensive interventions improve or worsen HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, urinary albumin excretion rate, risk of cardiovascular or mortality outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Results of this review are mainly influenced by one small trial, hence uncertainty surrounding the effect of intensive interventions in people with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria still exists. Large studies are urgently required in this high risk cardiovascular group of patients.

    https://www.diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-8227(18)31245-2/fulltext

    Given some of the controversy from recent epidemiological studies this puts things into perspective

    Controversy and debate: memory-based methods paper 1: the fatal flaws of food frequency questionnaires and other memory-based dietary assessment methods


    Abstract
    There is an escalating debate over the value and validity of self-reported dietary intake as estimated by Food Frequency Questionnaires and other forms of memory-based dietary assessment methods. Proponents argue that despite limitations, memory-based methods provide valid and valuable information about consumed foods and beverages and therefore can be used to assess diet-disease relations. In fact, over the past 60 years, thousands of memory-based dietary research reports were used to inform public policy and establish the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Yet, despite this impressive history, our position is that memory-based dietary assessment methods are invalid and inadmissible for scientific research and therefore cannot be used in evidence-based policy making. Herein, we present the empirical evidence and theoretic and philosophic perspectives that render data derived from memory-based methods both fatally flawed and pseudoscientific. First, the use of memory-based methods is founded upon two inter-related logical fallacies: a category error and reification. Second, human memory and recall are not valid instruments for scientific data collection. Third, in standard epidemiologic contexts, the measurement errors associated with self-reported data are nonfalsifiable because there is no way to ascertain if the reported foods and beverages match the respondent’s actual consumption. Fourth, the assignment of nutrient and energy values to self-reported intake (i.e., the pseudoquantification of anecdotal data) is impermissible and violates the foundational tenets of measurement theory. Fifth, the proxy estimates created via pseudoquantification are often physiologically implausible and have little relation to actual nutrient and energy consumption.Finally, investigators engendered a fictional discourse on the health effects of dietary sugar, salt, fat and cholesterol when they failed to cite contrary evidence or address decades of research demonstrating the fatal measurement, analytic, and inferential flaws of memory-baseddietary assessment methods.

    https://www.jclinepi.com/article/S0895-4356(17)31375-6/pdf


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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Mon Oct 15 2018, 00:16

    Oh yes that was excellent!

    The first one

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.10.002

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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Wed Oct 17 2018, 23:48

    Shows the problem with replacing high glucose with high insulin and finding neither are good for you.

    Meanwhile

    https://www.nutritionadvance.com/health-benefits-saturated-fat/

    one of the quoted papers here

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5394

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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Fri Oct 19 2018, 22:42

    Must take from this that noxious dietitians are part of the problem  Twisted Evil

    Carbotoxicity—Noxious Effects of Carbohydrates

    Modern nutrition is often characterized by the excessive intake of different types of carbohydrates ranging from digestible polysaccharides to refined sugars that collectively mediate noxious effects on human health, a phenomenon that we refer to as “carbotoxicity.” Epidemiological and experimental evidence combined with clinical intervention trials underscore the negative impact of excessive carbohydrate uptake, as well as the beneficial effects of reducing carbs in the diet. We discuss the molecular, cellular, and neuroendocrine mechanisms that link exaggerated carbohydrate intake to disease and accelerated aging as we outline dietary and pharmacologic strategies to combat carbotoxicity.

    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)30972-3


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    I'm a skinny T2 diagnosed 4/4/2008, a high calorie LCHF diet and one metformin a day A1c 6.2 and no complications.

    Proving the LowCarb sceptics wrong for over ten years

    Not all cherubs are Angels  Wink nor all diabetics Bonkers  Rolling Eyes
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Fri Oct 19 2018, 23:07

    Oscillating Glucose Is More Deleterious to Endothelial
    Function and Oxidative Stress Than Mean Glucose in
    Normal and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/57/5/1349

    CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that oscillating glucose
    can have more deleterious effects than constant high glucose on
    endothelial function and oxidative stress, two key players in
    favoring cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Concomitant
    vitamin C infusion can reverse this impairment

    some of the references may be worth a look, I recall studies where microvascular complications tracked with A1c and macrovascular complications tracked with postprandial glucose spikes - and when the spikes are brief enough the blood is only glycated reversibly, while other tissues don't have that luxury

    Paradox of hypercholesterolaemia in highly trained, keto-adapted athletes

    https://bmjopensem.bmj.com/content/4/1/e000429

    Volek Phinney et al look into the background of what Dave Feldman has been researching

    A Reappraisal of the Lipid Hypothesis

    https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(18)30404-2/pdf

    "UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
    Promoting foods that are low in cholesterol but typically
    high in refined carbohydrates is supposed to help prevent
    coronary heart disease. Paradoxically, there is now evidence
    that these dietary changes have contributed to the
    epidemic of diabetes that can actually lead to coronary
    heart disease.20 Furthermore, some statin users mistakenly
    believe they can eat whatever they want, leading to the phenomenon
    of statin gluttony.21 Consider also that the recent
    expansion of statin indications may result in millions of
    healthy individuals being treated because of a risk score
    even though they may be at extremely low risk of coronary
    heart disease."

    The insulin resistance syndrome: impact on lipoprotein
    metabolism and atherothrombosis
    Henry N. Ginsberg and Li-Shin Huang

    http://sci-hub.tw/http://doi.org/10.1177/204748730000700505

    Insulin Resistance as a Predictor of
    Age-Related Diseases

    https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/86/8/3574/2848584

    both these are from EIGHTEEN years ago, the second starring Gerald Reaven

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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Fri Oct 19 2018, 23:09

    @graham64 wrote:Must take from this that noxious dietitians are part of the problem  Twisted Evil

    Carbotoxicity—Noxious Effects of Carbohydrates

    Modern nutrition is often characterized by the excessive intake of different types of carbohydrates ranging from digestible polysaccharides to refined sugars that collectively mediate noxious effects on human health, a phenomenon that we refer to as “carbotoxicity.” Epidemiological and experimental evidence combined with clinical intervention trials underscore the negative impact of excessive carbohydrate uptake, as well as the beneficial effects of reducing carbs in the diet. We discuss the molecular, cellular, and neuroendocrine mechanisms that link exaggerated carbohydrate intake to disease and accelerated aging as we outline dietary and pharmacologic strategies to combat carbotoxicity.

    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)30972-3

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.cell.2018.07.044

    looks excellent, I'll read it later
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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Sun Oct 28 2018, 22:22

    Oh yes that WAS excellent.

    Novel subgroups of adult-onset diabetes and their association
    with outcomes: a data-driven cluster analysis of six variables

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30051-2

    moving in the right direction but not quite there yet, looking at the different subtypes of "diabetes"

    Roger Unger is king of the alpha cells and glucagon, here's more research on the subject

    http://sci-hub.tw/10.1038/s41574-018-0097-y


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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by chris c on Wed Oct 31 2018, 00:24

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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

    Post by graham64 on Wed Oct 31 2018, 21:36

    This headline caught my eye, another paper casting doubt on the diet-heart hypothesis 

    OF COWS AND MEN: REVIEWING THE LINK BETWEEN MILK FAT AND HUMAN HEALTH 

    CONCLUSION
    We may be in the midst of a paradigm shift in human nutrition. The revaluation of the validity of classic literature and the emerging plethora of evidence over the past decade, strongly contradict the long-held idea that dietary saturated fats cause adverse effects on health. Moreover, as shown in this review, current evidence indicates that dairy products,
    including full-fat dairy, may exert protective effects on metabolic health, reducing the incidence of obesity, T2D, MetS, CVD, and mortality. In light of this evidence, a general call to revise the guidelines on dairy consumption seems strongly justified and necessary, particularly as dairy products may help combat the spread of chronic diseases. Moreover, the historic focus on individual nutrients (e.g., fat, calories) has proven limited in terms of predicting clinical outcomes. In this sense, a whole-food approach to studying the effects of the ensemble of nutrients contained in dairy foods on human health outcomes seems
    warranted. Lastly, policy changes should be guided by a more nuanced interpretation of observational studies, and reflect the value of repeatable, randomized controlled studies, as the latter may provide insights on causality and the role of dairy on public health. 

    [url=https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/59846/Rico (manu).pdf?sequence=2[/url]]https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/59846/Rico%20(manu).pdf?sequence=2[/url][/url]


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    Re: More Science, Can You Believe It?

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